Weekly Cycle Schedule
Monday, June 17 - Cycle 2 LAST DAY OF CLASSES
Mysterious Stone Chambers of Putnam County Historical Rationale
In Putnam County, NY there are 37 mysterious stone structures randomly scattered across the county. According to scientists some of them may align with the sun and stars on certain dates during the year. Archaeostronomy, the study of the alignment of structures with the heavens, is usually associated with such ancient wonders such as Machu Picchu in Peru or Newgrange in Ireland. Historians believe that these structures in Putnam County resemble the Neolithic Celtic stone chambers similar to those found in Europe. Many critics believe that these structures are really 18th century root cellars, which have inspired debate among amateur historians, Now, the structures have come center stage amid renewed controversy over their history and the effort to preserve these structures.
In her study, Emily plans on determining if the stone structures of Putnam County are stone chambers or root cellars. She plans on accomplishing this by using historical documents and maps to determine the proximity of the structures to the house of the land’s owner(s). As well as astronomical tests to determine if the structures correlate in any way with the sun and stars. The following year, Emily will determine the value of the stone structures either agriculturally, religiously, economically, politically or socially using town records, journals and newspapers.
Emily is a sophomore in Carmel High School, as well as a competitive Irish dancer, she is a high honor roll students and participates in the track and tennis teams in her school. Emily aims to be a CHS mentor and be in the National Honor Society next year. Emily has always loved history from when she was little and is really excited to be tie history into her project. When Emily is older she wants to be an archeologist and travel the world. When not running or dancing you can find Emily reading about history or watching The Office.
Lie Detection and the Untrained Eye
Deception occurs in one quarter of every conversation. During an average day, a person can hear up to 200 lies. There are two different indicators that arise when a person is telling a lie. The first indicator is verbal such as sentence structure and length of pauses. Verbal is defined as relating to or in the form of words. The second indicator is nonverbal such as arm movement and head movement. Nonverbal is defined as not involving or using words or speech. Lie detection is not a simple task. Individuals that are trained in lie detection perform no better than the average person does when attempting to distinguish lies from the truth.
The purpose of Daria’s study will be to determine the accuracy of untrained individuals in detecting when being told a lie. She plans to compare the accuracy scores between students and teachers at Carmel High School. The participants will be asked to watch a series of videos depicting a situation and determine which of the videos contain a lie. Daria hopes her study will help improve law enforcement practices.
Outside of Science Research, Daria can be found playing on the Carmel field hockey and lacrosse teams. She enjoys reading books and petting dogs in her free time. Daria is currently in honors classes and loves learning World History. Daria hopes to be a forensic psychologist after graduating college.
The Correlation between Levels of Air Pollution and Death from Neurological Causes Across U.S States: Does Foggy Air Lead to a Foggy Mind?
Ambient air pollution is a great environmental risk to health – causing more than 3 million premature deaths every year (World Health Organization, 2012). One of the most dangerous pollutant to humans is Particulate Matter 2.5, which is extremely small and can be absorbed through the skin or inhaled through the nose and enter the blood stream. Past research has determined the effects of these particles on the lungs and heart, but little work has been completed on the effects of these pollutants in the brain. A recent study has found that pollutants similar to PM2.5 can wear down the Blood-Brain Barrier, a semipermeable membrane surrounding the brain that serves to keep harmful substances out.
Meghan plans to determine if there is a correlation between the amount of PM2.5 air pollution in an area and the number of deaths from neurological causes (ex. Parkinson’s, Alzheimer). She will use the Center for Disease Control’s WONDER database to determine the number of deaths and the CDC’s Public Health Tracking Network to determine levels of PM2.5. She hypothesizes that because pollution wears down the Blood-Brain Barrier, areas with higher levels of pollution will have a greater number of deaths from neurological causes. She hopes that her research can help bring awareness to the devastating effects of air pollution and contribute to treatment of people with these diseases.
Meghan is an honor student at Carmel High School. She takes part in many clubs, and recently bec
Analysis of polymorphism in yellow spotted salamander eggs
Amphibians, a unique group of vertebrates containing over 7,000 known species, are threatened worldwide. As an effect many amphibians have adapted to survive in these new conditions. Some of these adaptations have occurred because of the consequences of global climate change. The effects of climate change on the Earth's ecosystems are expected to be profound and widespread. Many species of plants and animals are already moving their range northward or to higher altitudes because of warming temperatures. The animal responses to climate change is already alarming, and the yellow spotted salamander happens to be one of the animals who has shown a response.
Deborah hypothesizes that the yellow spotted salamander has adapted through its eggs, to increase survival. In response to the increased amounts of sunlight due to climate change, these eggs need to be protected. A cloudy membrane could act as a sunscreen to protect the embryo from major exposure to sunlight. She plans on going out into the field, observing naturally occurring clutches of eggs in vernal pools and taking an account of the amounts of the two types of eggs. She will also be looking at the amount of foliage coverage in order to identify a correlation between the amount of foliage coverage and the amount of cloudy eggs. She hypothesizes that the more foliage coverage there is the less cloudy eggs there will be. She hopes that the results from her study could shed some light on the subject. She additionally plans on collaborating with local conservationists and the Great Hollow preserve.
Outside of science research, Deborah is involved in the school’s varsity tennis team and varsity ski team. Deborah is an honors student at Carmel High School and has a profound passion for science. She plans to enter a pre-vet program in college and then to veterinary school. She very much enjoys taking care of animals and playing tennis in her free time.
The effect of radiofrequency energy from smartphones on Drosophila Melanogaster
Cancer is the second leading killer of Americans, and the leading cause of death worldwide. According to the American Cancer Society, every year about 1.5 million new cases are diagnosed in the United States and more than half a million people die from the disease, according to the. Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) to the DNA within cells. Natural exposure of an organism to various environmental factors, such as radiation and chemical carcinogens can provoke cancer-causing mutations. Radiation of high frequency can penetrate cells. If it strikes a section of DNA on the way through, the radiation can easily damage the structure, causing mutations which can lead to cancer. Smartphones emit radiofrequency energy, a form of non-ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation has been shown to damage DNA. Since the average person spends over four hours a day on their smart phones, it is crucial that they are aware of the harmful effects the radiofrequency energy emitted from their smart phones.
In her study, Julia plans to observe the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted from smartphones on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). She will be exposing the flies to the radiation for a specific amount of time. The physical characteristics of the fruit flies will be recorded and compared to the control group of flies. The reproductive and mortality rates of the flies will also be recorded. Julia hopes that her research will provide further insights into the harmful effects of non-ionizing radiation on organisms and raise awareness due to the copious amounts of people being exposed to this radiation every day.
Julia is a high honor roll student, and a member of the varsity tennis, golf, and basketball teams. She is also a participant in the 1000 Girls 1000 Futures program, sponsored by the Global STEM Alliance of the New York Academy of Sciences. As a part of the program, the participants receive one-on-one mentoring from professional women in stem fields. Julia plans on studying multiple sciences in college, with hopes of becoming a cancer researcher.
Analyzing Fentanyl’s Varying Postmortem Levels
In the past few years overdose deaths from the synthetic opioid fentanyl have skyrocketed. Fentanyl abuse has been present in over fifty percent of opioid overdose cases across the United States. Forensic Pathology is the study of the cause and time of death of humans. Forensic Pathologists are responsible for autopsies and determining the factors around overdose deaths, including recording toxicology results. Forensic Pathologists have noticed that in the past few years the levels of fentanyl found in decedent’s blood from overdose cases have been very steep, with levels high above the fatal amount.
In Grace’s research, fentanyl level/amounts from deadly overdose cases will be examined. Grace hypothesizes that there has been an increase in Fentanyl levels overtime. She also expects that this increase in fentanyl levels will correlate with an increased number of Fentanyl overdose deaths. Data will be obtained from the Dutchess County Medical Examiner’s Office under the supervision of a qualified Forensic Pathologist. Grace hopes the study will bring awareness to the high level of variance in Fentanyl and its analogs (variants).
Grace is an honors student at Carmel Sigh School. She has a passion for science. In school she participates in various extracurricular activities like advanced art classes and Symphony Orchestra. In her free time Grace likes to read or draw. She hopes to one day become a doctor.
Perfectionism in High Achieving Suburban High School Students
Individuals with perfectionism set high standards for themselves and strive for these expectations in their performances. Perfectionism has been separated into two groups: healthy and neurotic. Healthy perfectionists strive for high performance standards with high academic achievements, have high levels of conscientiousness, productiveness, organization, and are more accepting of mistakes. On the other hand, neurotic perfectionists are motivated by the approval of others, have unrealistically high standards, and are constantly in a state of anxiety and stress. Hewitt and Flett (1991) have identified perfectionism as a multidimensional personal and social construct, divided into three dimensions: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented, and socially-prescribed. Many studies have investigated perfectionism's prevalence in gifted students; however, few have explored perfectionism in public high school adolescents, especially in suburban areas.
The purpose of Monica's project is to identify the types of perfectionism in a sample of suburban, public high school students, and determine if there is a correlation between perfectionistic type and certain traits in high achieving students. Therefore, participants will be asked to take two surveys: Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Goals and Works Habits Survey. She hopes the findings will assist parents and teachers in understanding and identifying perfectionistic students who may be under stress and anxiety.
Monica is currently an honors sophomore student at Carmel High School. She is part of the Science Club, Art Club, Interact Club, Tri-M, 1000 Girls 1000 Futures Program, and Reading Buddies Program. She enrolled in the Science Research course because of her passion and interest for science. She chose a study in perfectionism because she is a perfectionist. In the future, Monica desires to pursue a career in science. Her hobbies include sleeping, reading, drawing/painting, and listening to music.