2022 Carmel Science Research Symposium
Is there a statistically significant correlation between using blood-based biomarkers to identify similar and different genetic characteristics between psychiatric disorders in order to develop more efficient approaches?
Mental illnesses are diagnosed by a variety of factors. Various symptoms in the same illnesses and a lack of knowledge of biochemical differences in the brain make it very difficult to prevent, diagnose, and treat psychiatric disorders. However, identifying blood-based biomarkers has shown a connection between genetic and environmental risk factors. With biomarkers, it is possible to develop better pharmacological options.
Adelise's research will use a meta-analysis study that identifies RNA, DNA, or protein components associated with specific mental illnesses. Apart from science research, Adelise enjoys reading in her free time and spending time with her friends and family. She also loves taking dance classes and competing.
Jennie Belle Aliaga
The knowledge and practices on water intake and its relation to urbanization levels between high schoolers and adults during the COVID-19 pandemic based on New York State.
Water is a vital resource to all humans. Water compromises two-thirds of our body fluids while simultaneously aiding food ingestion and digestion, the regulation of body temperature, and the maintenance of blood circulation which carries nutrients and oxygen to cells (Ahmeda, 2021). Without the adequate amount of water intake being fulfilled whether it be in winter or summer, each of those processes can be hindered as shown in one study that found how the loss of body mass with no water intake is associated with poor memory and attention, and fluid deficiency is associated with headaches, irritability, and sleepiness (Shaheen, 2018). Research focusing on the hydration status in older adults is scarce; furthermore, there are very few studies focusing on the impact of urbanization levels on fluid intake practices.
Jennie Belle's goal of her project is to decipher any trends or patterns between urbanization and hydration knowledge and practices in hopes of proposing ways to improve majorly populated facilities such as schools and company buildings in their ability to promote adequate hydration to their population.
Aside from her involvement in science research, Jennie Belle is interested in sports such as soccer and likes to be involved within the community as shown when she volunteered as a member of the Youth Forum Committee for the 2022 Putnam County Youth Forum. In June, Jennie Belle will also be attending the 2022 Rotary Youth Leadership Award Conference at Mount St. Mary's College. Jennie Belle's hobbies vary from laughing to the arts and music.
her family and friends
Dr. Foulds, PhD
The Role of Vision in Temporal Chunking of Auditory Speech
In noisy real-world environments, combining visual and auditory cues helps improve the perception of speech. The importance of visual cues for the perception of speech has been highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, where the presence of masks can often make it difficult to perceive what speakers are saying. How the visual and auditory cues in speech are combined is still not well understood. In particular, both visual and auditory cues in speech are time-varying signals. Visual cues in speech, often termed visual speech, are provided by the motion of the mouth as well as the face. Auditory cues in speech contain both spectral and amplitude modulation cues. In noisy settings, these amplitude modulation cues are often degraded, and visual cues are particularly important in helping the auditory system identify important auditory cues, which in turn will help in speech perception.
Based on a wealth of past research, our hypothesis is that the temporal modulations in visual speech in the 2.8Hz range are critical signals that presumably help the auditory system perceive auditory signals better. To test this hypothesis, our experimental manipulation is to investigate the perception of altered auditory speech embedded in multi-talker babble with and without visual cues. We will manipulate the amount of temporal information present in auditory signals by filtering the temporal modulations in the sound at 8 Hz or at 2 Hz using the FAME algorithm (Nice et al. IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Egg, Plass et al, 2020). We will combine these degraded auditory signals with visual speech. To assess the participant's lip-reading capabilities, we also include a condition where the participant views visual-only speech and correlate performance on this condition with performance on the audiovisual condition. Our research will help provide insight into whether visual cues could be used to improve simulation algorithms, alternatively develop better auditory stimulation algorithms, or alternatively develop better auditory stimulation algorithms that use multiple microphones. Finally, clearly demonstrating how visual cues help in the perception of auditory speech will help drive the adoption of transparent masks.
Outside of science research, Keerthi tutors younger students and is a part of many clubs. She is captain of the Varsity Tennis Team, Vice President of Membership for the National Honor Society, member of the Spanish National Honor Society, member of the Science Club, and a member of the Mentors Program. Keerthi has enjoyed her time in the Science Research Program for the past 3 years.
Mrs. Griffin and science research peers
Her family and friends
Her mentor Dr. Chandramouli Chandrasekaran
The Effect of Older Students Modeling Behavior for Younger Students on Decision Making
Due to the past years of learning remotely, many students have expressed a lack of adjustment to high school. Carmel High School has a mentor program that aspires to create a more friendly and focused environment in the school. Previously, studies have been conducted on assessing student engagement to provide feedback for schools, as well as assessing the grit and morale of high school students in order to better the school environment.
In Allison's research, the goal is to determine whether having older students model behavior for younger students can impact student decision-making. Also, to aid in determining whether a mentor program should be developed in more schools. This study involves surveying students and staff of a high school to gain insight into their observations of the dynamic between the older and younger students, as well as the effectiveness of the mentor program. This study will also aim to provide intel into the perceived dynamic of the high school.
Allison is a highly involved honors student at Carmel High School. She is the president of the National Art Honor Society as well as a co-president of the Book Club. In her free time, Allison enjoys listening to music, creating art, and reading. Allison will be continuing her studies at the University of Vermont, pursuing a career in elementary education.
Dr. Griffin for her knowledgeable guidance and helpful information
Her friends and family for their support
Correlation Between Teaching Styles and Prior Experience of Teachers
Student educators acquire personal beliefs and knowledge about teaching as a result of their past experiences. Experiences such as childhood events, demographic background, and prior work experience, have been shown to have a significant impact on people's decisions later in life. As a result, a teacher's past expertise in their field of study may influence how their course is arranged and how they teach. This might be linked to their enthusiasm for their work and subject. Knowledge of this topic is beneficial for the reason that the way teachers prepare, organize, and teach their classes has a significant impact on students' capacity to comprehend the content.
Aubrey's goal for this research project is to identify if teachers' previous life experiences influence the structure of their lesson plan as well as the atmosphere of the classroom. This can correspond to the student's ability to learn from the educator. TO conduct the research, Aubrey will carry out a study using human participants for data collection. She plans to use Microsoft Forms to distribute her survey to teachers. The survey will ask specific questions about teachers' childhood life, parent/guardians' professions, schools they went to, and elementary to college professors.
Outside of science research, Aubrey plays a variety of sports. She is on the Carmel field hockey team, and golf team, and has been a cheerleader for 12 years. Along with sports, Aubrey is also a part of Girl Scouts and multiple after-school clubs such as Bella Voce, French Club, and Students Organization. Also, she has recently been elected as Junior class president for the 2022-23 school year. When Aubrey is older, she hopes to pursue a career in psychology or political science.
Her science research peers
Association of Race and Other Social Determinants of Health with HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Use: A County-Level Analysis using the PrEP-to-Need Ratio
The Center for Disease Control defines pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as one of the primary methods to decrease HIV transmission. PrEP is a preventative drug that can significantly decrease HIV transmission if taken as prescribed. It has been shown that HIV-related health care has been significantly influenced by various socioeconomic and demographic factors. Therefore, this study opted to analyze such factors in relation to PrEP uptake.
Ryan's study determined that there is a relationship between adequate PrEP uptake and the percent of African Americans, income, insurance status, and housing cost burden at the county level. However, after completing a stratified analysis, he learned that the mechanisms of disparate PrEP updates vary between urban and rural counties. He hopes to continue further research in PrEP uptake, focusing on intervention efforts to increase PrEP use in historically marginalized communities.
For his research, Ryan has received the title of Top 300 Regeneron Science Talent Search Scholar, as part of the nation's most prestigious and oldest science competition. In addition, his research paper was accepted into the Journal of AIDS Education and Prevention, in which he will be recognized as the first author. In his junior year, he was awarded the Westchester Science and Engineering Fair (WESEF) Innovation in Biological Sciences Award. Finally, Ryan had the opportunity to attend the Summer Science Program in Biochemistry, one of the longest-running precollege, research-based enrichment programs for highly gifted high school students.
Outside of science research, Ryan is Captain of the Cross Country and Track Team, President of the National Honors Society, and. President of Science Club. He enjoys reading, playing the viola, and writing poetry. Ryan will be graduating as Valedictorian and will attend Brown University in the fall to continue his study of Public Health.
The Effects of Human-Made Noise Pollution on Songbirds in New York State
People in your everyday community are causing reversible and irreversible damage to the environment we live in. This damage is affecting the animals in said community, but there are things we can do to help. The first thing we can do is learn and spread the word on how the use of human-made products, like noise and waste, is changing the way animals in your area behave and function. Specifically, how songbirds react to noise pollution created by cars, motorcycles, talking, music, etc.
In this research project, the goal is to spread knowledge and data on how human-made noise is affecting the behaviors and songs of songbirds. It will be conducted within the Fred Dill Wildlife Preserve, in Carmel, NY, as well as Veterans Memorial Park, in Kent, NY. Fred Dill is a wildlife preserve off the main road and I hope to observe how the trend of birds there behave and the frequency of their songs as you get Arther from the road, therefore deeper into the woods. Veterans Memorial Park is a public and frequently visited park, with a walking trail towards the back. I hope to observe the same things on the walking trail.
Outside of science research, Grace loves to exercise and volunteer in her community through the 4-H program. Grace plays softball through the school as well as a tournament team. She also runs track and cross country in the fall and winter. In addition to sports, Grace babysits and works at a local restaurant when she is not volunteering. She loves to give back to your community and better herself.
The Correlation Between the Motivations and Aspirations Experienced by High School Students to Attend Highly Selective Colleges and Universities
How do we identify students who want to attend a highly selective institution? Is it based on the academic programs offered at the institution? Is it based on the school's location? Or is it based on the school's reputation and name? The work that goes into being accepted to one of these schools alone is plentiful because of what each school expects of their students.
Hopefully, with this research, it would be possible to identify the factors and understand the reasoning behind what motivates high school students to attend these colleges and universities. The research will be distributed through Microsoft Forms beginning in the 2022-23 school year.
Outside of science research, Jack is involved in the Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) club and volunteers at Memorial Sloan Kettering where he's put in over 200 hours of service so far.
The Learning Styles of Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the human population, disrupting daily life around the world. As a result of this public health emergency, a number of school closures have been globally imposed, creating the largest disruption of education systems in human history. Although many studies have been done on how the COVID-19 pandemic affected education there has been little done on how the pandemic impacted adolescent learning styles, a factor that is incredibly significant to the development of a child's future development and education. In her research, Maesha addresses this gap of knowledge to help adjust various learning styles to the environment of the COVID-19 pandemic and enable a better understanding of the pandemic's effects on education.
Maesha strives to recognize how adolescent learning styles have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic by surveying students. By gaining various student body perceptions through a demographic survey and informational questionnaire, she hopes to gain insight into how their learning styles have changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.
Outside of science research, Maesha is a determined and hard-working student. Taking several advanced placement and honors classes, Maesha is also very involved in her community, as she volunteers for the library, tutors middle-schoolers, and participates in-service events. She is also an avid learner in many fields, including coding, knitting, and learning new languages.
Maesha would like to thank her science research teacher, Mrs. Griffin, her science research peers, and her family for the unlimited support.
Should People with Congenital Heart Disease Exercise as a Healthy Person Does?
Cardiovascular disease is a common issue in people around the world. Congenital heart disease is specifically heart disease that people are born with. When people live their entire lives having this lack of confidence in their own body, they begin neglecting it in an attempt to keep it safe. These may be people who avoid exercise or strenuous activities, but they may now cause themselves issues.
The goal of this project is to determine if people who continue with activities and stay fit will be able to maintain a better quality of life than if they had avoided exercise. She is focused particularly on what kinds of exercise are best and which are most commonly avoided due to nervousness to complete the activity. Isabel will be sorting through different archived datasets to evaluate correlations.
Isabel is a junior who has been taking science research for two years. She hopes to have a future in science which makes this class one of her favorites. Isabel is an avid reader and enjoys reading after a hike in the mountains. She is also a part of the two ski teams, Carmel's Varsity ski team and a team representing the Sri-State Area, in which she competes both competitively and will be found at Thunder Ridge most hours of the day.
The Comparison Between Restrictive and Liberal Transfusion Triggers in Relation to Post-Operative Complication Rates
Blood transfusions are a very common procedure within our medical society, yet there are still so many complications that arise from them. The administering of a specific transfusion trigger is critical to the success rate of the overall transfusion procedure. Blood transfusions exist within multiple surgical procedures and other medical practices. The percentage of an adverse event occurring during and/or after the administering of a blood transfusion is 1% to 2%. While this may seem like a small amount, due to how common blood transfusions are this number is quite large.
Abby's research is specifically focusing on restrictive and liberal transfusion triggers and the complications that arise after they are given. These are the two main transfusion triggers administered and the main difference between the two is the time that the blood is injected and how much blood is given to the patient. This study will include an analysis comparing different complication rates between the two triggers and try to find a correlation. Finding a correlation will help lead to the source of the complication which will hopefully lessen that complication in the future.
Outside of science research, Abby is an honors and AP student who enjoys spending time with friends and drinking Starbucks. Abby has been dancing for over 12 years and is currently dancing at TapsnToes studio. She has loved being part of the science research program for the past two years because it has provided her with many opportunities and allowed her to explore her personal academic interests. Abby hopes to continue research in college and eventually practice medicine focused on pediatrics after college.
Correlation Between Type of Diet and Rate of Injuries
Nutrition is one of the most important things for athletes. However, some athletes have dietary restrictions which prevent them from consuming an omnivore diet. Furthermore, in recent years diets such as the paleo, Mediterranean, vegan, vegetarian, Atkins, and keto have become increasingly more popular for many reasons ranging from health concerns to ethics. Many of these diets have the potential for nutrient deficiencies which can increase the likelihood of injury.
Angelica's goal is to determine if there is a significant correlation between the type of diet and the rate of injuries. In the study, they will distribute a survey to different athletic groups who consume different diets. They will be comparing omnivore, Mediterranean, paleo, vegan, vegetarian, Atkins, and keto.
Outside of science research, Angelica plays on two soccer teams; Carmel Rams and Carmel United Rampage. They are a member of the National Honor Society and the mentor program at school. They volunteer on the Carmel volunteer ambulance and want to pursue a career in medicine. Their plan is to apply and get accepted into an excelled physician assistant program and become a pediatric P.A. Science research will help them achieve their goal and teach them valuable lessons that will help them succeed in the future. They are very excited to start their study and to discover the possibility of increased injury rates for certain diets.
Angelica would like to their...
The Correlation Between the Type of Animal and the Administration of Rabies PEP in Individuals
Each year, rabies causes about 59,000 deaths worldwide. On the other hand, approximately 120,000 animals are tested for rabies each year in the US and only 6% are positive for rabies. Many people are not aware of the severity of rabies due to the relatively small number of reported cases. Research on rabies is critical to spread awareness about the virus and limit any preventable deaths, whether it be human or animal.
In Leah's research, the goal is to determine if there was a statistically significant correlation between the type of animal and the number of individuals administered rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies virus consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine given on the day of the rabies exposure, and then a dose of vaccine given again on days 3, 7, and 14. Without adequate post-exposure therapy/treatment, the virus can be fatal, so Leah's research aims to learn more about the relationship between animal-type and PEP. Data will be obtained from the Dutchess County Health Department and the project will be conducted while corresponding with an esteemed biostatistician.
Leah is an honors student at Carmel High School and is highly involved in various clubs and activities. She is the co-president of Book Club and vice president of National Art Honor Society. Leah enjoys reading, drawing, and listening to/playing music in her free time. She has a passion for science and will be continuing her academic journey at UMass Amherst in the fall, studying Animal Science/Pre-Veterinary Medicine.
Her friends and family for their support and guidance
Her mentor Ms. Hisieni Wisniewski for helpful insight and information
Three Food Acid Lab Conclusion Analysis through Qualitative Coding, Cohen's Kappa, and Inter-rater Reliability
Chemistry education is an overlooked area in the chemistry field. There is a clear disconnect between the chemistry laboratory and the real world. The acid-based titration laboratory the students participated in used commonly known acids; citric acid in citric soda, acetic acid in vinegar, or acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin for students to gain an opportunity to use outside knowledge and make connections to their everyday lives. The student researcher's research looks at what methods the students used to come to their conclusions the most in order to gain an understanding of the students' thought process, therefore, improving future general chemistry laboratories and education.
With the student researchers' first hypothesis being supported it allows for greater steps in the future of chemistry education to be taken. The student reseachers' conclusion of what methods students use in general chemistry laboratories to come to their conclusions opens a door into the students' thought process and connections that they may make. Professors can now see how students think and know that they use slope, equivalence point, key points, and comparison to arrive at their conclusions in labs like acid-based titration ones. On a deeper level we also now know that students feel most comfortable using concepts of comparison and equivalence point. In the future, laboratory professors can guide students in any misconceptions they might have within these four methods students use for higher success rates. If the student researcher was to continue this research, she can use Fleiss' Kappa with a third co-researcher for further justification as well as looking into the success rates of each method; equivalence point versus slope.
Riley is a junior who is currently taking classes in AP United States History and Government, AP Language and Composition as well as other college level courses. Outside of school, she enjoys running and is a member of the Carmel Varsity Cross Country and Carmel Varsity Track team. At home, Riley loves to cook with her mom. Riley will be continuing her research with her mentor over the course of the summer and into the next school year.
Her family and friends
A Deep Decision Tree Regression Analysis of PFAS Biodegradation Half Lives and Toxicity
PFAS are common hazardous chemicals that have been found in water everywhere and are known as "forever chemicals", almost everyone has exposure to PFAS with it in water, air, fish, soil, and blood. These chemicals are common in the manufacturing of Teflon, nonstick and water-resistant products. There are many different varieties of PFAS chemicals so how long each chemical stays in the environment and their specific effects on humans are unknown. These chemicals are cancer-causing and their effects remain not well known by the broader public.
In his study, Mateo plans to use a chemical database to produce accurate half-lives, bioaccumulation data, and toxicity of PFAS molecules using machine learning. An accurate algorithm can show which chemical aspects impact the PFAS properties the most. The problem being addressed here is the gap of knowledge of accurate half-lives, bioaccumulation data, and toxicity for many of the 1,000s of PFAS molecules. This information is critical in understanding and controlling the problems posed by PFAS pollution. It could be useful for legislation against the PFAS to make sure that the worst offenders that are long-lasting and dangerous are banned or better dealt with.
Outside of science research, Mateo is a honors and AP student at Carmel High School. He enjoys running and is a member of the Carmel Cross Country and Track teams. Mateo is an active member of the Boy Scouts and enjoys hiking and swimming. In college, he hopes to become an engineer.